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What is cancer?

What is cancer? It shows an abnormal growth of cancer cells, growing independently and rapidly without activity. Many cancers are thought to be caused by random mutations in DNA.

However, not all cell types are the same. A small fraction – about 1% – contains stem cancer cells (CSCs). CSCs are similar to most common stem cells in the human body because they are available in large quantities and have the ability to regenerate themselves. These cells help to spread cancer in the body and make new tumor cells by dividing and differentiating.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world, according to a WHO report.

Types Cancer types

Symptoms of cancer

Causes and risk factors for cancer

Cancer diagnosis

Cancer treatment

Types of cancer

According to the tissue, the cancer is classified as follows:


Carcinomas are cancer-based epithelial tissue. Epithelial tissue is the covering of any organ exposed to the external or internal environment, such as the skin, the intestinal tract, the inside of the mouth, or the inside of the nose. This is the most commonly reported form of cancer. Other examples of carcinomas include prostate cancer, breast cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.


These are lesions of the origin of connective tissue. The connective tissue supports and connects different parts of the body. For example, cancer of sebaceous tissue, areolar tissue, ligaments, ligaments and bones among others.


Leukemia is a blood cancer caused by the uncontrolled growth of white blood cells. The four main types of leukemia are lymphocytic (acute and chronic) and myeloid (acute and chronic). Depending on lymphocytic and myeloid leukemia, cells in different stages of bone marrow-white bone cell are associated with cancer.


 These are cancers of the lymph node and lymphatic organs. Lymph refers to the fluid that builds up in the middle space. It forms a separate network of lymph vessels and small groups of lymph nodes in more than one part of the body. Lymph contains lymphocytes, which help to fight infections. There are two types of cancer or lymphoma of these organs – Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

In addition, cancer can be classified based on the following body parts or body parts:

Breast cancer

Cervical cancer

Oral cancer

Prostate cancer

Cervical cancer

Ovarian Cancer

Blood cancer

Lung cancer

Stomach cancer

Bone cancer

Rectum cancer

Throat cancer

Liver cancer

Skin cancer

Bladder cancer

Cancer of the brain

Kidney cancer

Testicular cancer

Pancreatic cancer

Endometrial cancer

Cancer of the vagina

Symptoms of cancer

Symptoms of cancer vary greatly depending on the affected organ. There are certain signs and symptoms that can be found in any type, regardless of the type and type of cancer:

Excess weight gain or weight loss

Feeling weak and tired

Frequent skin lesions

Feeling a lump under the skin

Difficulty breathing and coughing for more than a month

Changes in the skin, such as changes in the size of existing moles or warts or the appearance of sores

Rub gently on the skin

Feeling digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation

It’s hard to swallow

Loss of appetite

You feel a change in voice

 Frequent heat or night sweats

Muscle or joint pain with delayed healing wounds

Frequent infection

You should talk to your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms as it is best to treat cancer very quickly. You should also keep in mind that not all of these symptoms are visible to everyone and not everyone experiences them at first, often without noticing them. In fact, most people do not experience any symptoms at all, only to discover that they have cancer after special tests. The important point is that even the smallest sign should not be ignored.

Causes and risk factors for cancer

Some mutations or changes in the DNA of cells cause cancer. DNA, considered to be the brain cell of the cell, provides details about the growth and transformation of cells. Failure to comply with these instructions could lead to uncontrolled growth and cancer of the uterus.

The substances that cause cancer growth are called carcinogens, which are also some of the most dangerous and major causes of cancer. They can be chemicals, for example, substances found in cigarette smoke; Physical, such as ultraviolet radiation; Or biological, such as human papilloma virus. A single carcinogen cannot be blamed for causing cancer. Too much carcinogen, along with other substances such as health and diet, can cause cancer in a person.

Dangerous features

The most dangerous features of cancer are:

Tobacco and tobacco-related products in the form of smoking or chewing can cause lung and oral cancer.

Increasing alcohol consumption increases the risk of liver cancer for many.

Eating unhealthy foods and eating foods high in fiber can lead to colon cancer.

Hormones that increase testosterone and estrogen levels are factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer, respectively.

Colonial cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and many other types of cancer are increasing with age.

Genetic defects or mutations significantly increase the risk of cancer e.g. Genetic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of breast cancer in women.

When someone in the family has cancer, the risk of certain types of cancer such as breast cancer increases.

Occupational hazards such as exposure to chemicals such as paint, tar and aniline increase the risk of certain cancers, such as bladder cancer.

Bacterial and viral infections cause systemic disruption, which acts as a precursor to cancer, for example, H. pylori. Pylori infection can lead to an increase in stomach cancer; Hepatitis B and C infections can lead to liver cancer and human papilloma virus can lead to cervical cancer.

 Regular X-rays or harmful ultraviolet rays also increase the risk of cancer.

Obesity, excessive fat intake, and limited physical activity are factors that contribute to the development of many types of cancer in both men and women.

Outcomes The long-term effects of stress determine the risk of cancer. In addition, weakened immune systems from past or present health conditions increase the risk of cancer.

You may be aware that many of these harmful substances, whether genetic or age-related, can be prevented by a healthy lifestyle and a sufficient distance from infection and pollution. If one of your ancestors has cancer or is at risk for any type of cancer in general, you need to change your lifestyle to reduce the risk.

Cancer diagnosis

The type of cancer suspected, the severity of the symptoms found, and any conclusions from previous research are considered. The following are often used to determine the risk of cancer:

Physical examination to detect any abnormalities

Page Laboratory analysis of human blood sample (total blood volume (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-working protein, liver test and kidney function and more).

Some tests such as cancer antigen (CA) 19.9, carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may be prescribed by a doctor if certain types of cancer are suspected.

Advanced imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT scan, MRI, barium diet, bone scan, PET scan, SPECT scan, USG etc.

 A biopsy of tissue collected from a suspected tumor was performed under a microscope to identify the stage of the tumor, the extent of its spread, and the type of tumor cells.

Cancer treatment

There are two main types of cancer treatment:

Surgical procedures

This includes the removal of abnormal stems or cell clots followed by a biopsy to remove the enlarged part. This is especially helpful when the tumor can be detected and easily removed.

Non-surgical procedure

It involves chemotherapy, which involves the destruction of abnormal cellular growths with the help of drugs, and radiotherapy involves the use of gamma rays, such as those that focus on the growing plant.

Sometimes both surgical and non-surgical methods are used. First, it is recommended to reduce the size of the tumor with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and then to remove the cancerous lesion. After surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy is repeated to prevent its spread to other areas.

Other treatment options include hormonal treatment, immunological treatment, bisphosphonates etc. It is used according to the specific needs of the cancer. Eg. Breast and cervical cancer are helpful when treated with hormone therapy.

Medications are also given to prevent the development of cancer-related symptoms. This can include painkillers, antacids, antipyretics to prevent individual symptoms.

Generally, painkillers are the only possible treatment, where portions of morphine or other painkillers are used to relieve the pain and chronic pain caused by cancer, as the cancer itself cannot be controlled by its magnitude.

New types of treatment

The cancer treatment field is a very growing field. Almost every year new treatments are used to reduce costs and prevent recurring cancer. The incidence of cancer varies from about seven to one hundred depending on its type. New research is aimed at finding ways to understand the function of cancer cells in order to find the best way to stop their growth and spread. This includes research on cancer cell cells that form specific T cells to identify CSC markers and to detect certain DNA and genetic mutations after cancer development to identify and kill CSC.

Lifestyle changes

A small change in lifestyle can help the affected person improve his or her health and control his or her symptoms. These may include:

Eat nutritious homemade foods

Exercise regularly

Avoid tobacco and alcohol.

Go for regular check-ups to get tested next time.

Take proper stress management by doing yoga, meditation or hobbies or hobbies.

 Stay happy, cheerful and positive


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